Life cycle inventories of waste incinerators (Contact: Thomas Astrup)
Life cycle inventories (LCI), which are in- and output accounts of all resources, energy and emissions, have been established for selected waste incineration technologies based on data from full-scale incinerators. A range of full-scale test with incineration of residential waste has been used to characterize waste input composition as wells as develop substance transfer coefficients for waste incineration. Specific full-scale tests with controlled input of waste have been used to investigate input-output relations for waste incinerators. Recycling of bottom ash for use as construction materials has also been examined.
Solid residues characterization (Contact: Thomas Astrup)
Sampling equipment for automatic and representative sampling of solid residues from thermal processes have been developed and used at full-scale waste incinerators. Solid residues from a range of thermal technologies are characterized, including waste incineration and gasification. The residues are characterized with respect to solid composition and leaching behavior in both short and long-term perspectives. The importance of sampling and sample handling in the lab has been evaluated with respect to the final results of leaching tests.
Residue treatment (Contact: Thomas Astrup)
A range of waste incineration residue treatment technologies have been investigated and evaluated with respect to treatment efficiencies, residue composition, and leaching. A chemical stabilization technology for air-pollution-control residues and fly ashes has been developed: The Ferrox-process. The process has been extensively characterized in the lab and at pilot-scale. The treated residues have further been successfully reintroduced to the furnace in order to produce a single solid output from incineration of waste. The technology is commercially available.
Life-cycle-assessment of residue management (Contact: Thomas Astrup)
Models evaluating residue management solutions have been established for air-pollution-control residues, fly ashes, and bottom ashes from waste incineration. Life cycle inventories (LCI) have been established for a range of residue management solutions.